Gemma Sebares has received a PIONER Prize (Generalitat de Catalunya) as an author of a doctoral thesis that has let to design an app for Android that makes it easier to obtain more accurate data when is evaluated the reception of museum spaces from visitors. The author defended such thesis in December of 2015 in the Institut Català de Paleocologia Humana i Evolució Social (IPHES) and now has merited the award “for the contribution that makes the application of new technologies in a little transformed area”, according the jury resolution.
The award ceremony has taken place today in an event celebrated in the office of the CERCA Institution (Centres de Recerca de Catalunya, in Barcelona), entity that call them with the purpose to distinguish the researchers that newly elaborated a doctoral thesis and have obtained results clearly oriented to be used commercially. This year the prize has been of 1000 euros and a certificate.
The Gemma Sebares thesis is called “Evaluation of the process of socialization of the archeological field of the Sierra de Atapuerca to the Museo de la Evolución Humana in Burgos”, that has been taken as a case of empirical study. “This has been possible thanks to the design of a new method of data recollection and analysis, to make possible to extract an objective results, unleashing the evaluation from the classical surveys, completely subjective”, Gemma says. This method, in addition, is completely suitable in any other museographic space.
Sebares has analyzed, for example, if the museum solutions used in MEH are effective and suitable for any type of public, if in a museographic and didactic level has the necessary importance in the used resources, and if museology and museography are used correctly, how the museum fatigue affects in the visitors, has determined the attention and attraction levels and has reached a registry system and empiric analysis suitable in any other museum.
The data collection method it was made according to an app designed by herself and it was developed it by a computer programmer (Daniel Alcaraz Perelló). It has been conceived for Android system to be used in a tablet and is directly linked to a data base. The app Cronos.apk has been registered in i-DEPOT, intellectual property office of BENELUX, with validity in any country of the European Union.
At a time, the doctoral thesis has let to determine the socializing effectivity grade of the Museo de la Evolución Humana de Burgos (inaugurated on July of 2010) based on the visitor behavior, linking it to assembly of the museum analysis and information about the public’s profile.
With the use of the observational method it has been calculated the time that dedicates, or not, every visitor on looking to the different museographic resources of the museum. It has been determined the attracting power, the holding power, the interest level, the diligent visitors, the transition time, and the museum fatigue: all of this considering all the different sociodemographic groups, with the intention to catch the eventual problems in levels of every museum space or at the level of concrete museographic resources, and to improve, in that way, the socialization degree of the museum.
Among the major conclusions, it has been possible to establish the socialization capacity of the MEH. Seeing in result that the floor that works best is the first that is visited, the intended to the Sierra of Atapuerca archeological fields, with original fossils, one of the biggest claims of the museum, and that ends rounding the visit in all the Sierra de Atapuerca complex (museum, archeological fields, workshops…).
Futhermore, it has been possible to detect the “weak points” of the musrography whom a lot of the founded problems could be solved easily and improve, that way, the socialization of the museum.
The levels of attention, attraction, interest, thoroughness, transition and tiredness change considerably depending the analyzed sociodemographic group, but there are some museographic resources suitable for every one of the groups, and this encourage the socialization of the all of them.
At a methodological design level created for this research, is required to point that the app as well as the analysis and study method are completely appropriate in any other museum.
Gemma Sebares i Valle, raised in El Vendrell and born on Valencia in 1984, is graduate in History (Universitat Rovira i Virgili de Tarragona, URV), Master’s Degree in Quaternary Archaeology and Human Evolution (URV) and doctor in Quaternary and Prehistory (URV).
She began her formation in archeology since the first year of college, and clear for the beginning she participated with IPHES team in some archeological projects.
Eventually, as for the realization of the master, she began to specialize in the socialization of the heritage, especially the one related to the human evolution and prehistory.
Now she works as an associated professor in the Universitat de Barcelona, in the Didàctica de les Ciències Socials department, is member if the research group DEDPATRI (UB) and also Guia de Catalunya, exercising especially in the Tarragona province.
The study of migratory routs, used by different hominin groups during their migration from Africa to Europe and Asia, is one of the most important branches of investigation. There are different proposals and geographic points, which may have had particular importance. The Azokh Cave site, located in Nagorno Karabakh (Southern Caucasus) is now getting special prominence.
The first international and multidisciplinary monograph dedicated to the excavations and research of Azokh titled “Azokh Cave and the Transcaucasian Corridor” was published by Springer, an international editorial, specialised in science, medicine, and technology.
According to this study, the hominins and different animals inhabited Azokh Cave during their pass from Africa to Europe and Asia around 300 to 100 thousand years ago BP. Moreover, this cave was used by three different hominin species: Homo heidelbergensis, Homo neandertalensis and Homo sapiens, and has almost continuous register of lithic remains (from Middle to Upper Pleistocene) associated with fauna.
The monograph includes the results of detailed studies of all these remains (hominin, faunal, vegetal and technological) found in Azokh during the excavation seasons of 2002 – 2009. In addition, an important effort was made to contextualise the site in the Caucasus connecting the results obtained from Azokh Cave with other sites of the same chronology and from the same geographic area (e.g., Kudaro I, Kudaro III, Treugol’naya, Tsona, Djruchula, Mezmaiskaya etc.).
More than twenty institutions and research centres from different countries are involved in the monograph’s publication. The IPHES has a great input in it, as five out of fifteen chapters (those of lithic artefacts, macro and micro vertebrate remains, taphonomy and charcoals) are leaded by its researchers and collaborators such as Dr. Isabel Cáceres, Dr. Ethel Allué, Dr. Andreu Ollé, Dr. Hugues A. Blain and Dr. Lena Asryan.
Azokh Cave was discovered by M. Huseinov in 1960’s and was excavated for around twenty years by Russian and Azerbaijani researchers. Almost all the sedimentary infill and fossil contents at the entrance of Azokh 1 was emptied during these excavations leaving a small part at the back of the entrance. During these excavations faunal and lithic remains were recovered together with a hominin mandible fragment in unit V, which was classified as Homo heidelbergensis.
In 2002, an international, multidisciplinary research team restarted the excavations at the site. During these excavations, from Unit V (300.000 years old) together with herbivore (Equus hydruntinus, Equus ferus, Stephanorhinus hemitoechus, Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis,Capreolus pygargus, Dama aff. peloponesiaca, Dama sp., Megaloceros solihacus, Cervus elaphus, Bison schoetensacki, Ovis ammon, Capra aegagrus, Saiga tatarica) and carnivore faunal remains (Canis cf. Lupus, Canis aureus, Meles meles, Martes cf. Foina, Crocuta crocuta, Lynx sp., Felis chaus, Panthera pardus, Ursus spelaeus, Ursus sp.), Middle Pleistocene lithic artefacts (it can be characterised as Late Acheulean or pre-Mousterian without bifaces) and fragments of charcoals were found.
Cave bear (Ursus spelaeus) is present in all the excavated archaeological units, but it is dominant particularly in Unit II with a chronology between 180 to 100 thousand years BP. The cave bear remains are associated with Levallois lithic assemblage in this unit. In addition, a hominin tooth was found at this unit determined as Homo neanderthalensis.
In one of the cave entrances (discovered during 2003 excavation season and named as Azokh 5) remains of Homo sapiens were found dated by 14C between 1.265 and 2.300 years.
Involvement of the IPHES
The IPHES was involved in the “Azokh Caves Project” in 2006 through researchers Ethel Allué and Isabel Cáceres. The participation of the institution was increasing since then, bringing not only experts to the project (they are more than twelve now) but also helping the local students to continue their formation and studies in the IPHES and URV (University Rovira i Virgili) through the international Master’s or pre-doctoral grants in Quaternary and Human Evolution under the supervision of the researchers from the IPHES.
In this context, Lena Asryan is one of the examples, who studied first the IPHES-URV’s Masters of Erasmus Mundus and then continued the doctoral studies in Quaternary and Prehistory (funded by the Wenner-Gren foundation [WIF-212]) at the same university. In September of 2015 she defended her doctoral thesis titled “Azokh Cave lithic assemblages and its contextualization in the Middle and Upper Pleistocene of South-west Asia”.
This research study is focused on the lithic assemblages of Azokh Cave recovered during the excavations of 2002 to 2013. The study of these assemblages indicates that the human occupation of the cave was short and seasonal in character and that it was alternatively occupied by hominins and large carnivores.
These conclusions are supported also by other studies (geological and paleontological) presented in the monograph, which show occupation of the cave by Ursids for hibernation during the dry periods of the cave (autumn-winter) and opportunistic access of hominins to bear carcases after the hibernation, possibly for obtaining leftover meat, skin and ligaments.
The investigation in Azokh Cave is included within the working lines of the research group known as IPHES-URV “Evolució social, cultual i biológica al Plistocè inferior i Mitjà” (AGAUR, SGR 2014-899) and in the Research Development Programme of the URV (2014PFR-URV-B2-17 and 2015PFR-URV-B2-17).
IPHES (Institut Català de Paleoecologia Humana i Evolució Social) counts since November 15th, on the incorporation of 3 technicians with employment contract in practices as a result of the European program of Garantia Juvenil, designed to offer training and employment opportunities to youngsters between 16 and 30 years who neither study nor work.
Run by experts of this research center they will achieve tasks, according to their specialty, within the paleoecology, restoration and photography fields. All of the technicians enjoy now from contracts by the Iniciativa d’Ocupació Juvenil and the Fons Social Europeu 2014-2020, with a 91,89% of cofinancial support.
The given grant to IPHES has an amount of 33.000 euros that let to open 3 employment contracts in practices for a 6 month period and a 100% of working day.
During the 2016-17 academic year, members of the Institut Català de Paleoecologia Humana i Evolució Social (IPHES), teach a total of four subjects in the frame of the History and Arts History undergraduate degrees of the Universitat Rovira i Virgili de Tarragona (URV), three of which are mandatory. These are: Human evolution and Culture, and Historic Methodology, by Robert Sala, and Prehistory, by Ethel Allué and Eudald Carbonell. In some of these subjects, doctoral students, Anna Rufà, Esther López, Leopoldo Pérez and Pedro Piñero contribute significantly.
The optional course is Prehistory of the Iberian Peninsula and is taught by Isabel Cáceres and Anna Rufà. Furthermore, the archaeologist Eudald Carbonell makes a number of sessions dedicated to specific items like violence, diet and technology.
In the framework of the Prehistory and Prehistory of the Iberian Peninsula courses recently took place a practical training at IPHES. Like in previous times, in that academic year were offered three workshops: one about zooarchaeology carried outtrained by Isabel Cáceres, the second about microvertebrates, taught by Pedro Piñero, and the last one, on archeobotany, by Ethel Allué.
The technology practice by Eudald Carbonell took also place and was focused, this year, in a prospection nearby IPHES where materials are found in the surface of the so called Tarragona pre-urban zone.
Also, the students visit IPHES guided by Marta Fontanals, member of the Unit of Projects and Transference (UPT). The aim of this practical course is to give an approach to the third year students of History and Arts History degree to the activities made by the members of IPHES. During the workshop, there is a special remark on the different lines of research through the variety of scientific ways such as laboratories, the use of microscopes and fieldwork.
The researchers found that most bones showed signs of having been modified by humans using stone tools, with a specialized technique similar to that used by modern hunters when skinning prey to keep the claws attached to the fur.
Upper Paleolithic humans may have hunted cave lions for their pelts, perhaps contributing to their extinction, according to a study published October 26, 2016 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Marián Cueto from the Universidad de Cantabria, Spain, and colleagues as Edgar Camarós (IPHES – Institut Català de Paleoecologia Humana i Evolució Social).
The Eurasian cave lion, likely among the largest lion species ever to have lived, became extinct around 14,000 years ago, but the reasons for its disappearance are not clear. Upper Paleolithic humans were previously known to have hunted other small and large carnivores, but archaeological evidence of lion hunting is sparse. To help fill in this gap, Cueto and colleagues examined nine fossilized cave lion toe bones from the Upper Paleolithic cave site of La Garma, in northern Spain, for evidence of cave lion exploitation by humans.
The researchers found that most bones showed signs of having been modified by humans using stone tools, with a specialized technique similar to that used by modern hunters when skinning prey to keep the claws attached to the fur. The authors suggest that the toe bones they analyzed may therefore have been part of a single lion pelt, which possibly lay on the floor of the occupied cave. La Garma is known to have been associated with human rituals, and cave lions may have been symbolic animals for Upper Paleolithic humans.
While the analysis is not definitive evidence that Upper Paleolithic humans exploited cave lions for their pelts, the authors speculate that human hunting of cave lions, perhaps as part of ritual activities, might have been a factor in cave lion extinction.
Citation: Cueto M, Camarós E, Castaños P, Ontañón R, Arias P (2016) Under the Skin of a Lion: Unique Evidence of Upper Paleolithic Exploitation and Use of Cave Lion (Panthera spelaea) from the Lower Gallery of La Garma (Spain). PLoS ONE 11(10): e0163591. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0163591
In 1991, 100 years after the 1891 discovery of Pithecanthropus erectus in Java, the International Senckenberg Conference was held in Frankfurt to review 100 years of Homo erectus research. In 2016, 25 years later, the “Homo erectus enigma” is still one of the most intriguing issues in hominin evolutionary research. At the centennial conference in Frankfurt 1991 the first hominin find from Dmanisi had its premier appearance on the international research scene. A truly extraordinary story of discoveries started in the Southern Caucasus that has produced five skulls over the last 25 years of research.
125 years of Homo erectus. TBILISI 20-24 September 2016 was organized jointly by the Georgian National Museum, the Senckenberg Research Institute Frankfurt/Main, and the ROCEEH Project of the Heidelberg Academy of Science. The scientific sessions took place in the Auditorium of the Georgian National Museum in Tbilisi.
A wealth of new finds demonstrates the high diversity within the Homo erectus hypodigm as well as the presence of regional variants in Africa and Eurasia. It is mainly the Caucasus, which added crucial information to the earliest stages of Homo out of Africa. The Dmanisi hominins are crucial for our understanding of the “Homo erectus enigma” as they display a high morphological diversity, entirely unknown before.
It is evident, that after 100+25 years of Homo erectus research, there is now sufficient new evidence to revisit the “Homo erectus enigma”. This conference on the one hand aims to comprehend state of the art knowledge about Homo erectus and on the other, to develop new approaches and questions for future international and interdisciplinary research.
Papers presented by IPHES with others researchers
Jordi Agustí, Isabel Cáceres participate in the paper lead by Mohamed Sahnouni on the Ain Hanech sequence: “Early Homo erectus behavior and adaptation in North Africa: New data from Ain Hanech and Tighennif (formerly Ternifine) sites in northern Algeria”
Robert Sala, Gema Chacón propose a paper on the Algerian sites where lead research in cooperation with the Centre de Recherches CNRPAH of Algiers: “A Middle Pleistocene human occupation of an ancient humid basin close to the Chotts Regions (N’Gaous, Algeria)”.
Isabel Cáceres participates in the Gona project lead by Sileshi Semaw: “The early Acheulian from Gona, Ethiopia: implications for Homo erectus technological transitions and diet”.
Bienvenido Martínez-Navarro, Eudald Carbonell, Xosé-Pedro Rodríguez: “The Plio-Pleistocene record from the Engel Ela basin (Danakil desert, Eritrea): geology, paleontology and archaeology”.
Bienvenido Martínez-Navarro participates in the research team of Dmanisi lead by David Lordkipanidze: “Dmanisi large mammal assemblage”
Jordi Agustí participates in the research team of Dmanisi lead by David Lordkipanidze: “The late Neogene-Quaternary small vertebrate succession from Georgia: zoogeographical and paleoecological implications”.